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Magnesium in Metallurgy
What is magnesium?
Physical characteristics
  • magnesium atomic structure
  • magnesium notable features
  • mg isotopes and isolation
  • magnesium compounds
  • magnesium advantages
Magnesium history
  • magnesium sources
  • magnesium explorers
Use of magnesium nowadays
Magnesium alloys
  • number of magnesium alloys
  • alloying components
Metallurgy and engineering
  • magnesium
  • magnesium and metallurgy
Magnesium applications
  • magnesium toxicity
  • magnesium safety
  • magnesium in automotive
  • magnesium in aerospace
  • magnesium in chemistry
  • magnesium for defense
Articles & Magnesium News
FAQ

What is magnesium?
Magnesium is a chemical element which we mark with Mg. Its atomic number is 12 and its mass is 24.31. It is the lightest of all the commonly used metals. Magnesium is the eighth most abundant element and constitutes about 2% of the Earth's crust by weight, and it is the third most plentiful element dissolved in seawater.
When is magnesium discovered?
Magnesium was found in 1618 by a farmer at Epsom in England. They were identity to be magnesium sulphate - MgSO4. In 1755 was recognized magnesium as an element. First isolation was done by Davy in 1808 who find a mixture of magnesia (magnesium oxide, MgO) and mercuric oxide (HgO).
Where you can find it?
Magnesium is produced from sea water, brines and magnesium-bearing minerals, which offer unlimited reserves. But you can't find magnesium like free element in the nature.
How is magnesium used?
In pure form magnesium is difficult for using. But strength properties comparable to those of many aluminum alloys are obtained by alloying magnesium with other metals, and, in some cases, by heat treating or working. Magnesium alloys are with low density, good ductility, moderate strength and good corrosion resistance. When used an alloying agent, they can improve the mechanical, fabrication, and welding characteristics of aluminum. Magnesium is also used in desulphurization with other metals, specifically steel.
What are magnesium's advantages?
Advantages of magnesium are something necessary for the modern industry and metallurgy Magnesium can be machined faster and has the best strength-to-weight ratio of any of the commonly used structural metals. It has excellent dimensional stability and is highly impact and dent resistant. Magnesium has excellent damping capacity and low inertia which makes it a good choice for parts which undergo frequent and sudden high-speed changes in the direction of motion. The new high purity alloys have corrosion resistance better than carbon, steel and some aluminum alloys. Magnesium has many economic advantages because when the die casting process reaches such a high state of perfection, there is a tendency for some to think of future progress in terms of purification.
How much magnesium is produced nowadays?
By 1990 the production was over 350,000 metric tons per year. Experts anticipate that the demand for magnesium will rise significantly over the next few years to reach close to 500,000 metric tons by the year 2005. Producers have kept ahead of the steady increase in demand for magnesium by building new capacity ahead of the demand curve. Only for automotive industry new projects say the using of the metal is around 40,000 to 50,000 t in the 2004/2005. Magnesium-based alloy castings and wrought products make up about 20% of free-market magnesium shipments.
What is aluminum alloying?
This is the largest single application for magnesium, accounting for about forty to forty-five percent of total consumption. Relatively small additions of magnesium to aluminum will improve its strength and corrosion resistance.
Many aluminum alloys contain some magnesium. The 5,000 series, frequently called the marine alloys because of their excellent corrosion resistance, may contain up to 5.5 percent magnesium. The 7,000 series, often referred to as the aerospace alloys, may contain up to 3.5 percent magnesium. The ubiquitous aluminum beverage can usually uses alloy 3004 (1.1 percent magnesium) for the can's body and alloy 5182 (4.5 percent magnesium) for the lid. Over 60 percent of the aluminum beverage cans sold in the U.S. today are being recycled, thereby conserving the magnesium component.
Is there are any structural uses of magnesium?
Magnesium alloys are used in a wide variety of structural applications. While a large number of alloys are in use, the most common contain up to nine percent aluminum, up to two percent zinc and small amounts of manganese. Pure magnesium materials are supplied in various compositions including the commercially pure metal (99.8 per cent minimum), alloys for casting, and alloys for the manufacture of wrought products. Varied mixtures are used for casting as contrasted with those for rolling, forging, or other working.
How is magnesium used in iron and steel processing?
Magnesium is an important element in the production of nodular cast iron, which is also known as ductile iron and spheroidal graphite iron. It is produced by introducing a small but definite amount of magnesium and/or rare earths, usually in the form of magnesium bearing ferro-silicon, to the molten iron. This process causes the graphite in the iron to nucleate as spherical particles instead of flakes, thereby imparting higher strength and much greater ductility to the casting. Ductile iron castings are widely used in automotive components and pipe.
Why use magnesium for structural parts?
The primary reason for selecting magnesium is its light weight and superior weight-to-strength ratio. Another common reason is its machinability. Other benefits include: dimensionally stable, welds easily, corrosion resistant and others.
What are the principal production processes today?
Both processes - electrolysis of molten magnesium chloride and Thermal reduction of magnesium oxide, are used to produce significant quantities of magnesium, although currently the majority of production on a worldwide scale is by the electrolytic method.
The magnesium chloride cell feed for the electrolytic process is obtained from the ocean, brines rich in magnesium chloride, residual bitterns from the processing of potash, dolomite or magnesium oxide ores.
What are major magnesium applications?
As the metal magnesium is the third most commonly used structural metal, following steel and aluminum. Magnesium compounds, primarily magnesium oxide, are used mainly as refractory material in furnace linings for producing iron, steel, glass, cement and nonferrous metals. According to low weight, good mechanical and electrical properties, magnesium is widely used for manufacturing of mobile phones, laptop computers, cameras, and other electronic components. Also the use of magnesium alloys in automotive, chemistry, defence, aerospace, fuel economy and many others.

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What is magnesium?

Green vegetables such as spinach provide magnesium because the center of the chlorophyll molecule contains magnesium. Nuts (especially cashews and almonds), seeds, and some whole grains are also good sources of magnesium.

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Notable features

Magnesium is a fairly strong, silvery-white, light-weight metal. It is protected by a thin layer of oxide which is fairly impermeable and hard to remove. Magnesium reacts with water at room temperature, though it reacts much more slowly (for example) than calcium.

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